G20(Group of Twenty)サミットとは、世界の主要国7か国(G7)に、ロシアや中国などを加えた20か国・地域の首脳が参加し、世界経済を中心に議論する国際会議です。近年、世界を主導してきた先進国の力が弱まり、成長が著しい新興国を加えたG20の影響力が高まっています。G20サミットとはどのような国際会議なのでしょうか。

G20's influence continues to grow
【The city of Osaka will host Japan's first G20 summit in 2019】
 The Group of Twenty, or G20, is made up of 20 countries (The G7 plus other countries including Russia, China etc.). It is among the most important global forums for international economic cooperation and coordination. Superiority of developed countries has declined; on the other hand, presence of the emerging economies is increasingly heightened. Influence of G20 including the emerging economies continues to grow.

存在感を増すG20サミット - サミットが誕生した経緯 -

- History of summit meetings -
 The first summit meeting was held in the Château de Rambouillet near Paris in 1975. At that time, the global economy suffered from serious economic stagnation due to the impact of the oil crisis and the Nixon Shock. The idea for the first meeting was the initiative of French President. The heads of state and government of France, Japan, the USA, the United Kingdom, Italy, and West Germany met at the Château de Rambouillet.
 In 1976, Canada joined the group, which became known as the G7. The European Union or EU joined in 1977, although the EU did not have the same status as national governments. Thus, the G7 became a summit meeting of the leading Western industrialized nations.
 Russia's economy proceeded to deteriorate after the end of the Cold War in 1989. Russia's influence on world economic affairs increased and Russia became a leading global supplier of nuclear power. Russia was first invited to attend at debates organized in parallel to the G7 London Summit in 1991. At the Birmingham summit in 1998, Russia was formally admitted to the group, making it the G8.
 As a result of Russia’s violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine in 2014, the heads of state and government of the G7 decided to suspend Russia's membership in the G8. The G8 is now the G7.
存在感を増すG20サミット - 世界金融危機がきっかけでG20が誕生 -

- G20 Summit was born to deal with global financial crisis -
 G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting was formally created at the Cologne Summit in 1999. It was created as a new mechanism for informal dialogue to promote operation to achieve stable and sustainable world growth that benefits all.
 In 2008, U.S. President George W. Bush invited the leaders of the G20 countries, creating the first ever G20 summit, to coordinate the global response to the aftermath of the collapse of Lehman Brothers.
 G20 has the G20 summit and G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting. Representatives of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the European Central Bank attend G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting.
 The G20 countries traditionally focus on issues relating to global economic growth and financial market regulation. The range of issues now considered by the G20 makes for a broad agenda. Examples include climate change, development policy, labour and employment policy, emergence of a new virus and counter-terrorism.
 The group accounts for approximately 80 percent of world GDP and two-thirds of its population. However, when an important issue arises, multilateral arrangements are difficult. It is expected that G7's adjustment is needed.
存在感を増すG20サミット - G20を構成する国・地域 -

- The members of the G20 -
 The G20 is made up of Japan, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, Canada, Russia, China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Australia, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Mexico, Argentina, and the European Union.
 First G20 summit was held in Washington in November 2008. There were two Summits per year until 2010. Now the G20 holds one annual Summit. The G20 Presidency rotates annually. A different G20 member country assumes the host and President of the Group each year.
 The 2018 meeting of the G20 Leaders' Summit took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The 2019 G20 summit will take place in Osaka, Japan for the first time. Saudi Arabia will host the G20 summit in 2020.
存在感を増すG20サミット - 大阪でG20、福岡で財務大臣・中央銀行総裁会議 -

- G20 summit in Osaka, G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting in Fukuoka -
 G20 is bigger than G7. More than 30,000 hotel rooms are required for the participants. It is also very important to guard VIPs.
 Osaka Prefecture, Osaka City, and Fukuoka Prefecture were in contention to host the main summit until the end. As a result, Osaka Prefecture, Osaka City was chosen. Osaka's experience as a host of an APEC summit was taken into account, as well as its close proximity to airports, accommodation capacity, and security circumstances. In addition, holding the G20 summit would promote Osaka's bid to host the 2025 World Exposition. The two-day summit will be held on June 28 and 29 at the Intex Osaka convention center.
 Meanwhile, Fukuoka was not seen to have enough facilities available to accommodate all the participating heads of state. G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting will be hosted by Fukuoka. Kyushu-Okinawa Summit 2000 meetings were held in Fukuoka. The government selected seven municipalities for the G20 ministerial meetings.



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